Summary of Part 6
In Part 6 we came to understand how human and social factors can influence our perceptions of incident causality and as a result we are often only concerned with the immediate past rather than the chronology of incidents.
Objectives of Part 7:
By combining an engineering & social approach, understand & apply the basic concepts of causality when:-
- Designing management & work procedures [Safe / Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) or Work Instructions (WI’s)].
- Completing an incident investigation.
So that through continual improvement and time, elimination of hazards & the prevention of error becomes the norm.
Part 7a: Engineering interpretations of occupational incidents
1. Lack of control in management systems:-
- All factors in a management system have relevance
- These need to be understood by the managers
- The word ‘control’ refers to the 4th function of professional management:
2. Basic & immediate causes (Aetiology):-
- Includes personal & social factors
- Lack of job knowledge (training)
- Physical or mental obstacles
- Inadequate work standards
- Inadequate maintenance of equipment
- Unsafe acts and conditions including unsafe engineering design
- Operating without authority
- Nullifying safety devices
- Poor housekeeping
3. Incident = contact with the hazard which is an undesired event.
4. Injury, damage or loss = physical illness, injury &/or property damage & loss whether instantaneous (acute) or delayed (chronic).
Bird, F; Management Guide to Loss Control, Institute Press, Atlanta
Heinrich et al, Industrial Accident Prevention; pages 25 – 28